The main aim of the course is to provide in-depth knowledge on the structure of nucleic acids and nucleoprotein complexes, genetic information transfer (DNA replication) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; to give general understanding of gene expression and levels of regulation of gene expression (transcription, RNA processing, translation, post-translational modifications of proteins), to consider the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; to detalize the molecular and biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation of living organisms to adverse environmental factors, in particular to oxidative stress; to provide students with the theoretical basic of methods and tools used by modern molecular biology to identify hereditary pathologies and infectious diseases, edit the genome to treat hereditary disorders, and create genetically modified organisms with properties useful for humans.
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Course: 9 lectures, 4 seminars
Lectures: Volodymyr Lushchak, Andriy Luzhetskyy
Seminars: Mariia Bailiak, Volodymyr Lushchak
The basic dogma of molecular biology. The flow of genetic information in pro- and eukaryotes and basic principles of its regulation.
DNA replication – Initiation, elongation, termination. Formation of phosphodiester bonds. DNA replication in E. coli. Eukaryotic DNA replication. Replication at the ends of linear chromosomes.
Terminology. Repair by excision in E. coli. Repair during replication. Reversible damage repair. SOS response.
Initiation and elongation. Termination. RNA polymerase of pro- and eukaryotes, and archaebacteria. RNA processing. Ribozymes.
Activation of amino acids. Elongation of the polypeptide chain. Termination. Regulation of translation.
Types of mutations. Chemical modification. Radiation damage. Errors in DNA polymerase and repair systems. Double spiral stretching. Biological mutagenesis. Directed mutagenesis.
General principles. Repression and induction. Operons and regulons. Peculiarities of gene expression in pro- and eukaryotes. Positive and negative control. Lactose and tryptophane operons. Catabolite repression. DNA protection.
Introduction to reactive species. Oxidative/reductive stress. Regulons of bacteria - OxyR and SoxRS. Yap1 yeast stimulon. Keap1/ Nrf2 system in animals.
General principles. Positive control. Negative control. Global regulation.