Molecular Biology

General description

The main aim of the course is to provide in-depth knowledge on the structure of nucleic acids and nucleoprotein complexes, genetic information transfer (DNA replication) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; to give general understanding of gene expression and levels of regulation of gene expression (transcription, RNA processing, translation, post-translational modifications of proteins), to consider the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; to detalize the molecular and biological mechanisms involved in the adaptation of living organisms to adverse environmental factors, in particular to oxidative stress; to provide students with the theoretical basic of methods and tools used by modern molecular biology to identify hereditary pathologies and infectious diseases, edit the genome to treat hereditary disorders, and create genetically modified organisms with properties useful for humans.

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Details of the curriculum

Course: 9 lectures, 4 seminars

Lectures: Volodymyr Lushchak, Andriy Luzhetskyy

Seminars: Mariia Bailiak, Volodymyr Lushchak

Flow of genetic information and principles of its regulation

The basic dogma of molecular biology. The flow of genetic information in pro- and eukaryotes and basic principles of its regulation.

DNA biosynthesis – replication.

DNA replication – Initiation, elongation, termination. Formation of phosphodiester bonds. DNA replication in E. coli. Eukaryotic DNA replication. Replication at the ends of linear chromosomes.

DNA repair.

Terminology. Repair by excision in E. coli. Repair during replication. Reversible damage repair. SOS response.


Initiation and elongation. Termination. RNA polymerase of pro- and eukaryotes, and archaebacteria. RNA processing. Ribozymes.


Activation of amino acids. Elongation of the polypeptide chain. Termination. Regulation of translation.

Molecular basis of mutagenesis.

Types of mutations. Chemical modification. Radiation damage. Errors in DNA polymerase and repair systems. Double spiral stretching. Biological mutagenesis. Directed mutagenesis.

Regulation of gene expression

General principles. Repression and induction. Operons and regulons. Peculiarities of gene expression in pro- and eukaryotes. Positive and negative control. Lactose and tryptophane operons. Catabolite repression. DNA protection.

Regulation of gene expression by reactive species in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Introduction to reactive species. Oxidative/reductive stress. Regulons of bacteria - OxyR and SoxRS. Yap1 yeast stimulon. Keap1/ Nrf2 system in animals.

Regulation of gene expression in procaryotes.

General principles. Positive control. Negative control. Global regulation.

Polymerase chain reaction: principle, types and applications. Selection of primers for PCR
Recombinant DNA technology and its practical use
GRISP/Cas technology of genome editing and its practical use
Nrf2-Keap1 pathway as a regulator of adaptive response: activation, modulators - sulforaphane, erucin and oltipraz, controlled genes
Undergraduate students
9 Lectures
Practical classes
4 Lesson
3 Months
Professor at the Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University (UdS), Saarland, Germany

Professor of the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University (PNU), Ivano-Frankivsk

Professor of the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University (PNU), Ivano-Frankivsk.

Предмети курсу

Course: 15 lectures, 6 seminars

Lectures: Halyna Semchyshyn, Galyna Ushakova, Oleh Lushchak

Seminars: Galyna Ushakova, Oleksandra Abrat

Course: 7 lectures, 4 seminars

Lectures: Volodymyr Shvadchak

Seminars: Volodymyr Shvadchak, Ivan Muzalov


Course: 13 lectures, 5 seminars

Lectures: Olga Garaschuk, Volodymyr Manko

Seminars: Volodymyr Manko, Volodymyr Merlavsky

Course: 4 lectures

Lectures: Volodymyr Shvadchak, Yury Kovalchuk, Nina Bondarenko

Course: 4 lectures, 4 practical works

Lectures/Seminars: Volodymyr Shvadchak