Molecular biology 03 2024

General description

The purpose of the block is to provide in-depth knowledge of the structure of nucleic acids and nucleoprotein complexes, the peculiarities of genetic information flow (DNA replication) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; to give an idea on ​​gene expression at different levels (transcription, RNA processing, translation, post-translational modification of proteins), to familiarize with the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; to get acquainted with the molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of living organisms to the action of adverse environmental factors, in particular to the action of oxidative stress; to provide students with the theoretical basis of the main methods used by modern molecular biology to detect hereditary pathologies and infectious diseases, genome editing to correct hereditary disorders, and the generation of genetically modified organisms with beneficial properties for humans.

1. The flow of genetic information and principles of its regulation.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

The main dogma of molecular biology. The flow of genetic information in pro- and eukaryotes and the basic principles of its regulation.

2. DNA biosynthesis - replication.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

DNA replication — initiation, elongation, termination. Formation of phosphodiester bonds. DNA replication in E. coli. DNA replication in eukaryotes. Replication at the ends of linear chromosomes.

3. DNA repair.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

Terminology. Repair in E. coli by excision. Repair during replication. Reversal of damages. SOS repair

4. Transcription.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

Initiation and elongation. Termination. RNA polymerases of pro-, eukaryotes and archaebacteria. RNA processing. Ribozymes.

5. Translation.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

Activation of amino acids. Initiation, elongation and termination of protein biosynthesis. Regulation of translation.

6. Molecular bases of mutagenesis.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

Types of mutations. Chemical modification. Radiation damage. Errors of DNA polymerase and repair systems. Stretching the double helix. Biological mutagenesis. Directed mutagenesis.

7. Regulation of gene expression.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

General principles. Repression and induction. Operons and regulons. Peculiarities of gene expression in pro- and eukaryotes. Positive and negative control. Lactose and tryptophan operons. Catabolite repression. DNA protection.

8. Regulation of gene expression by active forms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK

Active forms oxygen in biological systems. Oxidative/reductive stress. Bacterial regulons OxyR and SoxRS. Yap1 stimulon in yeasts. The Keap1/Nrf2 system in animals.

9. Use of molecular biology methods in medicine and biotechnology.

Polymerase chain reaction. Detection of hereditary pathologies and infectious diseases by the PCR method. Genome editing to correct hereditary disorders. Genetically modified and transgenic organisms.

1. The flow of genetic information and its regulation in pro- and eukaryotes.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK
2. Replication, mutagenesis and repair.
Volodymyr LUSHCHAK
3. Transcription and transcription and their regulation.
Anastasiia SHKUROPAT
4. Regulation of gene expression.
5. Biomedical and biotechnological use of molecular biological approaches.
Bachelor and master students
9 Lectures
Practical classes
5 Lessons
3 Months
as part of the course

Associate Professor of the Department of Human Biology and Immunology Kherson State University

Professor at the Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University (UdS), Saarland, Germany

Associate Professor of the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology at the Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University.

Professor of the Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University (PNU), Ivano-Frankivsk.